A process of sending a message or information to one or more locations without any physical connectivity is known as Wireless Communication. Wireless communication helps in information transmission for a long distance while cables, wires, and other forms of electrical conductors remain absent. The transmission distance can range from a few meters to millions of kilometres.
An electromagnetic wireless telecommunications technique (e.g. radio) is widely used for wireless communication. Radio waves are useful for few meters to long distance transmissions. It covers different kind of portable, mobile and fixed applications, which include wireless networking, personal digital assistants (PDAs), cellular telephones and two-way radios. Other applications of radio waves technology are cordless telephones, broadcast television, radio receivers, satellite television, headphones, headsets, keyboards, wireless computer mice, garage door openers and GPS units. Other method for wireless communication includes the usage of sound, light, electric or magnetic fields.
Wireless communication can be achieved through various wireless equipments. Few wireless types of equipment are: Mobiles, GPS units, Cellular telephones and pagers, Cordless telephone sets, cordless computer peripherals, radio navigation equipment, Amateur Radio Service, Professional SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio) and LMR (Land Mobile Radio), Ultrasonic and infrared remote control devices, Traffic control and telemetry control systems.
- Information can be conveyed to the consumers quickly.
- It helps working professionals to have an access of Internet anytime and anywhere without the need of carrying wires or cables. Thereby resulting in completing the task anywhere on time with improved productivity.
- Professionals, doctors and workers in remote areas can have access of medical centres via wireless communication.
- Wireless communication facilitates in giving alerts for the emergency and urgent situations.
- Wireless networks can be installed and maintained at low-cost.
In addition to advantages, wireless communication also comes with various threats. It has associated various security issues for the users. Hackers can intrude into the wireless signals that are present in the surroundings. Security of wireless networks is very important to prevent the information exploitation by unauthorized users. For securing the wireless signals, strong security protocols like WPA, WPA2 are required.
Wireless communications has shown the fastest growth in the communications industry. In the last decade, cellular systems exhibited exponential growth with around 2 billion users worldwide at present. Besides this, wireless local area networks are supplementing or replacing wired networks in businesses, homes and campuses. Many applications such as smart homes and appliances, wireless sensor networks, factories, remote telemedicine and automated highways are emerging from research ideas to concrete systems. The extensive growth of wireless systems along with rapid increase in palmtop and laptop computers signals great scope for wireless networks, both as part of the larger networking infrastructure and as stand-alone systems. Several technical challenges exist in designing sturdy wireless networks which can give the performance required for support. The existing gap between present and new upcoming systems and the expectations from wireless applications signal that a lot of work needs to be done for meeting the expectations.